Interpersonal violence related facial fractures:


Facial fracture
interpersonal violence
teeth injury

How to Cite

Mustafa, W. M., Ng, H. Y., Ngo, Y. E., Kathirvelu, A. T., Ooi, A. W. S., Jamal Din, S. K. ., & Nor Azmi, N. (2022). Interpersonal violence related facial fractures: : a 6-year survey in adult patients. Malaysian Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 20(1), 01–08. Retrieved from


Interpersonal violence (IPV)-related facial fracture cases have shown an increasing trend. The present study aimed to determine the demographic, pattern, and associated injuries, alcohol and/or drug influence as well as treatment received in IPV-related facial fracture presenting at Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) from 2010-2015. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was used. Clinical records of cases were collected and data analyzed using SPSS software v26. Data were organized and presented with descriptive statistics, Pearson Chi-square, and Independent t-test, with a 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 191 cases were analyzed, of whom 172 (90.1%) were male. Predominance is seen in Indian ethnicity 59 (30.9%), and the 21-30 years age group 65 (34.4%). The mean age at the time of assault was 36.47±14.86 years. Mandible (54.92%), zygoma (21.59%), and orbital (11.73%) were the most common fracture sites. There is a significant association between alcohol and/or drug influence with ethnicity, and place of incident (p <0.05). Conclusions: IPV-related facial fractures represent an important cause of facial fractures in patients presenting to Hospital Kuala Lumpur and deserves more public awareness.